पाठ 2  स्वराः

5 ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः                  1.2.27

अनुवृत्ति - 

Let a vowel whose time (or prosodial length) is that of short u, long u or prolated u, be called accordingly short (ह्रस्व), long (दीर्घ) or prolated (प्लुत).

These are again threefold, according to the accent that they carry, as follows

6 उच्चैरुदात्तः                             1.2.29

अनुवृत्ति - अच्

A vowel uttered in high tone is said to be उदात्त

7 नीचैरनुदात्तः                             1.2.30


अनुवृत्ति - अच्

A vowel uttered in low tone is said to be   अनुदात्त 

8 समाहारः स्वरितः                         1.2.31

अनुवृत्ति - अच्

A vowel uttered in a combination of  उदात्त and अनुदात्त is said to be स्वरित.

The application of three accents to each of the three lengths of the vowel gives rise to nine varieties for each vowel.

9 मुखनासिकावचनोऽनुनासिकः                  1.1.8

अनुवृत्ति - 

That which is pronounced with the mouth and nose together is called अनुनासिक. Thus each vowel can be further divided into two types, depending on whether they are nasal or non-nasal.

Thus of the vowels अ, इ, उ, ऋ there are 18 types each.

Of the vowel लृ, there are 12 types since there is no दीर्घ लृ

Of the vowels ए, ओ, ऎ, ऑ, there are 12 types each as they do not have a ह्रस्व counterpart.